In a nutshell, heavier buffers are slower to unlock when you fire a round, and since the bolt doesn't unlock as quickly, doesn't have as much percieved recoil, slows the rate of fire making it easier to keep on target, will produce slightly higher bullet velocities downrange which can also slightly increase range and accuracy because as much of the gas isn't as wasted by the chamber opening as quickly.
Dunno for sure. In theory, the mass of the carrier group along with the buffer and spring assembly are matched to the type of weapon. The AR15 was designed around a 20 inch barrel with a rather heavy carrier and buffer.
Shortening the gas tube, buffer and spring and reducing the gas port hole diameter on the Carbine versions created unwanted problems with over functioning. Gas pressure too high. Heavy carbine carriers/buffers may help here.
However, my info is way out of date here, like over 20 years old. I was told the new crop of AR carriers are way lighter than intended. Going to a heavier buffer group may balance things out somewhat, but I'm not sure. HB of CJ
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