I would recommend the .44mag as the best option (pistol and rifle) for a short range (<100 yards) deer cartridge and brush rifle.
For the rifle, look at the Ruger Deerfield semi-auto or 96/44 lever .44mag carbine, and the Thompson Center series rifles (for single shots).
For the pistol...the choices are endless. I would go stainless steel, at least a 6" if not longer barrel and a good set of pachmayer or Hogue rubber grips. I highly recommend the Colt Anaconda in .44mag., as well as the old standby S&W 629.
As for using the exact same ammo for both...that is no problem. You want at least 240gr HP loads (the Corbons will get you almost 1500fps with a ME of just under 1200ft/lbs out of the revolver and a little better out of the rifle/carbine, while the 260gr loads will get you around 1450fps and a ME of over 1200ft/lbs). More than enough power for whitetail at ranges of 100 yards or so (maybe a little more with the rifle/carbine depending on the shooter).
My same-caliber brush gun/pistol combo is the following:
A Marlin 1894S in 44 magnum and an older 5'5" Ruger Vaquero in 44 magnum.
Both are very well made and accurate, dependable guns that I'd never part with. I have owned both for many, many years and trust them to the ends of the earth. The Marlin is big fun to shoot and easy to carry.
I have dropped a few whitetails and many pigs with the Marlin, using Hornady's 300gr XTP bullet. I never wished for more gun - it puts the average whitetail and pig on the ground...fast.
I agree with all the above minimum is 357 and would lean toward 44mag. 4" barrel on the revolver minimum 6" if you plan to use it for hunting also...NExt season for me and I will be going 44 mag, big KY whitetail and heavy cover.
The 454 Casull is a great cartridge for short-range pistol/carbine and an excellent "brush gun" cartridge. The only gripe I have about the 454 Casull is the horrible cost of ammunition unless you are going to "roll your own."
The cheap commercial ammo (i.e. - Magtech, etc.) is $25-26 per box of 20 ($1.27/round), while the "good stuff" (i.e. - Corbon DPX and Hunting loads) will run $55 per box of 20 (upwards of $2.75/round).
The .44 will do everything in a hunting bullet within 100 yards that the .454 Casull will do and it will do it for a fraction of the price. For example, take the Magtech (cheap stuff) which for the .44mag is about $30 per box of 50 ($0.60/round) and the good stuff, Corbon will run $31 per box of 20 ($1.55/round). The savings over a year of shooting could be several hundred dollars depending on how much you are shooting.
While the .45LC round will chamber and fire from the 454 and is much cheaper than the 454 ammo...you lose some considerable ballistic advatage with the .45LC.
I have shot a few whitetail does, a Corsican ram and several Russian and feral pigs with my 44 mag 1894 Marlin. All fell dead in their tracks. Using Hornady's 300gr XTP ammo...its a sledgehammer. I used Fiocchi's 240gr soft point on the ram and he fell after taking maybe 2-3 steps. The 44 mag has very good stopping power at 100yds or under (which is what I have used it for).
Another thing I have found with my 1894 Marlin 44 mag rifle: it seems to be very accurate for a lever gun. From the 50yd bench, I got a 5 shot group that was one ragged hole the size of a quarter. Yeah...I could not believe it...but the 240gr Fiocchis grouped that good. I call that amazing accuracy from a fairly bone stock lever gun.
My 357 caliber 1894 Marlin is not as accurate as the 44, but I admit that I shoot the 44 more and have played with several loads, wheras I stick with 2-3 38/357 loads in the 357 rifle...so it might group as good as the 44 rifle if I found the load it "likes" best. Its accuracy is still VERY acceptable.
Go for the Marlin...you'll not be disappointed. They're very good guns.
Then, get a nice Ruger Blackhawk, Vaquero or Redhawk for your sidearm and you will be set for anything.
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